- Prostate Center
- Enlarged Prostate and Treatment
Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH) is a disease colloquially called as benign prostate enlargement. Studies have reported benign prostate enlargement in 25% of the 50-year-old males and 90% in 80-year-old males.
In a study based on Turkish Statistical Institute (TÜİK) data, it is estimated that there are approx. 3.3 million BPH patients in Turkey.
The prostate is an organ sensitive to male hormone, testosterone. In some conditions in which male hormone cannot be produced or resistance to the male hormone is present, no prostate enlargement was observed. However, the fact that prostate shows enlargement mostly in the geriatric period in which testosterone level is substantially decreased indicates that this subject remains to be cleared.
While the exact reason for prostate enlargement is not known, the best-known cause is aging.
It has been demonstrated that genetic factors also play a role in BPH, and individuals with familial history of BPH more frequently develop BPH.
While there are also studies on its association with some environmental factors and diet, no satisfactorily clear results could be obtained. Especially in recent years, there are some studies aiming to reveal the association between BPH and obesity. According to this, increased body weight, body mass index and waist circumference have been demonstrated to be associated with the increase in prostate size.
While red meat, carbohydrate and feeding from poultry increase the risk of prostate enlargement, vegetables, polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid, vitamin D and regular exercise reduce the risk of BPH.
What are the Symptoms of Prostate Enlargement?
When enlarged, prostate starts to obstruct urinary track and block urinary flow. Based on the obstruction grade, patients experience some complaints regarding urination.
- Decreased urine flow strength,
- Difficulty starting urine stream,
- Interruption of the urine stream,
- The feeling of being unable to completely empty the bladder,
- Feeling of frequent urination,
- Sudden urgency episodes,
- Urinary incontinence,
- Bifurcated urine stream and nocturia.
How Is Prostate Enlargement Diagnosed?
Patients with these complaints should be assessed for BPH. During this work-up, the exact nature of the prostate enlargement should be determined using PSA (Prostate specific antigen) analysis, urinalysis and rectal examination.
If these are normal, the patient is considered to have BPH. In order to reveal the stage of BPH, ultrasonography (USG) and uroflowmetry are performed. Also, International prostate symptom score (IPSS) in which the patient’s complaints are questioned is used.
Using all these obtained data, the stage of BPH is determined. The therapeutic approach varies based on BPH stage, the decision for medical or surgical treatment is made.
How Is Prostate Enlargement Treated?
In case of prostate enlargement, the urine retained due to a usually incomplete emptying of the bladder may cause recurrent infections or permanent impairment in renal functions. Also, complaints due to BPH considerably decrease the life quality of patients. Prostate enlargement is a disease that needs to be treated.
Treatments for prostate enlargement include the following: